Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:52 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 02:59:23 UTC
Primary IDFDB003581
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameCobalt
DescriptionCobalt has a molecular weight of 58.9 and an atomic number of 27. In the Periodic Table, close to other transition metals, it is situated in group 8, together with rhodium and iridium and it can occur in four oxidation states (0, +2, +3 and +4). The +2 and the ground state are the most common. Cobalt occurs in the minerals cobaltite (Co, Fe) AsS, smaltite (CoAs2), and erythrite Co3(AsO4)2.8H2O, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. Depending on the considered species, cobalt has multiple industrial applications including the production of alloys and hard metal, diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Hard metal or cemented carbide is a powder metallurgical product consisting of hard, wear-resistant carbide particles bound together (cemented) with a ductile metal binder (i.e. metallic Co) by liquid phase sintering. Tungsten carbide (WC) is produced by mixing tungsten powder with pure carbon powder at high temperature; hereafter WC is mixed with Co powder to which paraffin is added as a binder. Depending on specific requirements related to their use, hard metals might additionally contain small quantities of chromium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, tantalum or vanadium carbides. Inhalation and skin contact are the main occupational exposure routes. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues, including the respiratory tract, the skin, the hemapoietic tissues, the myocardium or the thyroid gland. In addition, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects have been observed in experimental systems and/or in humans. For the general population, the diet constitutes the main route of exposure to cobalt, since it is an essential component of Vitamin B12 (hydroxycolalamin). Cobalt functions as a co-factor in enzyme catalysed reactions and is involved in the production of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the formation of erythrocytes. This last property of cobalt was applied in the past as a therapy for anaemia. The carcinogenic potential of cobalt and its compounds was evaluated in 1991 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which concluded that there was inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity in humans (lung cancer) but sufficient evidence in experimental animal studies. In most experimental studies considered, the routes of exposure were, however, of questionable relevance for cancer risk assessment in humans for example, local sarcomas after intra-muscular injection. The general conclusion was that cobalt and its compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). Since this evaluation, additional data have been accumulated which generally indicate that, depending on the considered cobalt species, different outcomes regarding toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity can be observed. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC.(PMID: 14643417) [HMDB]. Cobalt is found in many foods, some of which are red beetroot, butternut, potato, and romaine lettuce.
CAS Number7440-48-4
Cobalt Oligosol Liq 0.45mg/2mlbiospider
Cobalt, Isotope Of Mass 55biospider
COBALT, POWDER, 99.9%biospider
Cobalt(2+) ionChEBI
Cobalt(II) cationChEBI
Cobaltous ionChEBI
Cobaltum Dps 4ch-30chbiospider
Cobaltum metallicumbiospider
Cobaltum muriaticumbiospider
Cobaltum nitricumbiospider
Coblatum nitricumbiospider
Super cobaltbiospider
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaCo
IUPAC namecobalt
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Co
Isomeric SMILES[Co]
Average Molecular Weight58.9332
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight58.933200194
Description Belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point1495 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5ec55e9e276ff34b918fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5ec55e9e276ff34b918fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5ec55e9e276ff34b918fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-c4eed668d3af388c4a95Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-c4eed668d3af388c4a95Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-c4eed668d3af388c4a95Spectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID94546
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00175
Pubchem Compound ID104729
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27638
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDCobalt
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
cardiomyopathogenic50912 A role played by a chemical compound exihibiting itself through the ability to induce damage to the heart and cardiomyocytes.DUKE
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrialMUTP22033
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).