|2010-04-08 22:10:05 UTC
|2019-11-26 03:06:30 UTC
|Secondary Accession Numbers
|Widespread throughout animal and plant tissue, purine components of DNA, RNA, and coenzymes. Vitamin
Adenine (sometimes known as vitamin B4) combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding AMP, ADP and ATP . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is an imporant secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes. Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine.; Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose. It forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.; Adenine is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.; Adenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.; In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4. It is no longer considered a true vitamin or part of the Vitamin B complex. However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively. Hermann Emil Fischer was one of the early scientists to study Adenine.; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.; Purine inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are serious hereditary disorders, which should be suspected in any case of neonatal fitting, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, neurological deficit, renal disease, self-mutilation and other manifestations. Investigation usually starts with uric acid (UA) determination in urine and plasma. (OMIM 300322, 229600, 603027, 232400, 232600, 232800, 201450, 220150, 232200, 162000, 164050, 278300). (PMID: 17052198, 17520339).
|4, Vitamin B
|9H-Purine, 1, 6-dihydro-6-imino-
|A, ade, adeninimine
|Adenine (van )
|B 4, Vitamin
|Vitamin B 4
|Average Molecular Weight
|Monoisotopic Molecular Weight
| Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
|Purines and purine derivatives
- Heteroaromatic compound
- Organic nitrogen compound
- Organopnictogen compound
- Hydrocarbon derivative
- Primary amine
- Organonitrogen compound
- Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
|No ontology term
|Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
|Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
|C 44.44%; H 3.73%; N 51.83%
|Mp 360-365 (anhyd.)° dec.
|Experimental Water Solubility
|1.03 mg/mL at 25 oC
|YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
|HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
|pKa2 9.83 (25°)
|Spectroscopic UV Data
|KEGG Compound ID
|Pubchem Compound ID
|Pubchem Substance ID
|CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) ID
|Dr. Duke ID
|Food Biomarker Ontology
|Phenol-Explorer Metabolite ID
|Old DFC IDS
|Biological Effects and Interactions
|Health Effects / Bioactivities
|Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.
|A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.
|central nervous system stimulant
|A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms involving the central nervous system.
|An agent that promotes the excretion of urine through its effects on kidney function.
|Strictly, a substance intended to kill members of the class Insecta. In common usage, any substance used for preventing, destroying, repelling or controlling insects.
|A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.
|Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.
|A drug used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
|Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
|Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2
|Peroxisomal trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase
|Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3
|— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.