Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:10:08 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:06:38 UTC
Primary IDFDB012367
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameTomatine
DescriptionTomatine is a mildly toxic glycoalkaloid or glycospirosolane (steroidal alkaloids whose structure contains a spirosolane skeleton) found in the stems and leaves of tomato plants as well as in the fruit of unripened (green) tomatoes (up to 500 mg/kg). Red, ripe tomatoes have somewhat reduced amounts of tomatine. A toxic dose of tomatine for an adult human would appear to require the consumption of at least 500 g of tomato leaves in one sitting (“Toxic Plants of North America” (Iowa State University Press, 2001)). Tomatine is known to have fungicidal and antimicrobial properties and is likely produced by tomato plants as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects (PMID: 19514731). Some microbes produce an enzyme called tomatinase which can degrade tomatine, rendering it ineffective as an antimicrobial (PMID: 18835993).Tomatine has historically been used as a reagent in analytical chemistry for precipitating cholesterol from solution (PMID: 4362143). When lab animals ingest tomatine, essentially all of it passes through the animal unabsorbed. Tomatine apparently binds to cholesterol in the digestive tract, and the largely insoluble combination is excreted — ridding the body of both the alkaloid and cholesterol. Experiments with hamsters have shown that both tomatine-rich green tomatoes and purified tomatine can substantially lower the levels of undesirable LDL cholesterol while maintaining normal levels of HDL (PMID: 10942315). Experiments with high-tomatine green tomato extracts were recently shown to strongly inhibit the growth of a number of human cancer cell lines including breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29), gastric (AGS), and hepatoma (liver) (HepG2), as well as normal human liver cells (PMID: 19514731). Other studies have found that purified tomatine is an outstanding immunoadjuvant capable of stimulating potent antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses that contribute to protection against malaria, Francisella tularensis and regression of experimental tumors (PMID: 15193398).
CAS Number17406-45-0
alpha -TomatineHMDB
Tomatidine, glycosideHMDB
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Chemical FormulaC50H83NO21
IUPAC name
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C50H83NO21/c1-20-7-12-50(51-15-20)21(2)32-28(72-50)14-26-24-6-5-22-13-23(8-10-48(22,3)25(24)9-11-49(26,32)4)65-45-40(63)37(60)41(31(18-54)68-45)69-47-43(71-46-39(62)36(59)34(57)29(16-52)66-46)42(35(58)30(17-53)67-47)70-44-38(61)33(56)27(55)19-64-44/h20-47,51-63H,5-19H2,1-4H3
Average Molecular Weight1034.1881
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1033.545758723
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroidal saponins. These are saponins in which the aglycone moiety is a steroid. The steroidal aglycone is usually a spirostane, furostane, spirosolane, solanidane, or curcubitacin derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSteroidal glycosides
Direct ParentSteroidal saponins
Alternative Parents
  • Steroidal saponin
  • Diterpene glycoside
  • Spirosolane skeleton
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Diterpenoid
  • Steroidal alkaloid
  • Azasteroid
  • Terpene glycoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Azaspirodecane
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Oxane
  • Piperidine
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiaminal
  • Polyol
  • Secondary amine
  • Acetal
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Route of exposure:

Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 58.07%; H 8.09%; N 1.35%; O 32.49%DFC
Melting PointMp 263-267° dec.DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical Rotation[a]D -19 (Py)DFC
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 6V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d0e0cccacc5de1c1d982021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-5204670292-fefb24de6d82cf624d9e2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0214950550-746c6066dceba3c1c1f42015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014r-2307930620-f9c49ce8d08133042e042015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03fr-9602540041-49730afc04a87b1ba5562015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03fr-5901730121-29848bddc6af802971d02015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03fr-4902610100-a4eb02a2dcccce405c802015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000200010-0880a3964aaaa89784552021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ls-6309310021-87a1da82a62eb8f896242021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-5232900013-40916e3761a4a30c788b2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000010001-553f7d4162d435d3da112021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a59-9100000028-2c472296ac894f5854a72021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9002210314-69b0c89546960ad0f26d2021-09-22View Spectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID5312
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC10827
Pubchem Compound ID5513
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9630
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDHHM52-S:HGP34-W
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00002268
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDTomatine
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
anti bacterial33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
anti inflammatory35472 A substance that reduces or suppresses inflammation.DUKE
fungicide24127 A substance used to destroy fungal pests.DUKE
immunostimulant50847 A substance that augments, stimulates, activates, potentiates, or modulates the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. A classical agent (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contains bacterial antigens. It could also be endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Its mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy is related to its antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.DUKE
molluscicide33904 A substance used to destroy pests of the phylum Mollusca.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.