Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:11:29 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:10:48 UTC
Primary IDFDB014814
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameCarnosol
DescriptionBitter principle in Salvia carnosa, Salvia officinalis (sage), Salvia triloba (Greek sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary). Nutriceutical with anticancer props. Carnosol is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis, Labiatae). It has been known that an extract of rosemary leaves contains high antioxidative activity. Ninety percent of this antioxidative activity can be attributed to carnosol and carnosic acid. Carnosic acid is easily converted to carnosol by oxidation. Carnosol has multiple beneficial medicinal effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities in various disease models. Carnosol may possess important neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced DA neuronal damage. Naturally occurring antioxidants reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, carnosol and carnosic acid promoted the synthesis of nerve growth factor in glial cells. Carnosol-mediated neuroprotection in DA neurons is involved in the attenuation of caspase-3 activity, which was induced by rotenone. Furthermore, carnosol-mediated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increase, which is dependent on the Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotection in SN4741 DA cells. (PMID: 17047462); Carnosol, a phenolic diterpene compound of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, is an activator of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand activated transcription factor, belonging to the metazoan family of nuclear hormone receptors. Activation of PPARgamma increases the transcription of enzymes involved in primary metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose. Hence, PPARgamma represents the major target for the glitazone type of drugs currently being used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 16858665)
CAS Number5957-80-2
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.04 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity91.43 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability35.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC20H26O4
IUPAC name3,4-dihydroxy-11,11-dimethyl-5-(propan-2-yl)-16-oxatetracyclo[^{1,10}.0^{2,7}]hexadeca-2(7),3,5-trien-15-one
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C20H26O4/c1-10(2)11-8-12-13-9-14-19(3,4)6-5-7-20(14,18(23)24-13)15(12)17(22)16(11)21/h8,10,13-14,21-22H,5-7,9H2,1-4H3
Average Molecular Weight330.418
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight330.18310932
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diterpene lactones. These are diterpenoids containing a lactone moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTerpene lactones
Direct ParentDiterpene lactones
Alternative Parents
  • Diterpene lactone
  • Diterpenoid
  • Phenanthrene
  • Benzopyran
  • Isochromane
  • 2-benzopyran
  • Tetralin
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Delta valerolactone
  • Delta_valerolactone
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 72.70%; H 7.93%; O 19.37%DFC
Melting PointMp 221-226°DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical Rotation[a]D -66 (EtOH)DFC
Spectroscopic UV Data283 (e 2510) (EtOH) (Berdy)DFC
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-a5b241b8344c36c2f0bf2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0019000000-e7accf1a4d2c8280c2f42016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03y0-1093000000-a5175230ca7dfd0384462016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0019000000-08dcb84c59b0d280b13f2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001r-6097000000-b2894527af41d8c29ad82016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-067l-9041000000-63e8a7af26ccd9f942f72016-08-03View Spectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID390568
KEGG Compound IDC09069
Pubchem Compound ID442009
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer ID668
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDJWJ41-W:JWJ41-W
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00003410
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor23924 A compound or agent that combines with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DUKE
antibiotic22582 A substance that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoans.DUKE
anti hepatotoxic62868 Any compound that is able to prevent damage to the liver.DUKE
anti HIV22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
anti inflammatory35472 A substance that reduces or suppresses inflammation.DUKE
anti lipoperoxidantDUKE
anti mutagenicDUKE
antioxidant22586 A substance that opposes oxidation or inhibits reactions brought about by dioxygen or peroxides. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted antioxidant food additives are from E 300 to E 324.DUKE
anti radicularDUKE
antitumor35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
antitumor promoter35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
cancer preventive35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
cyclooxygenase inhibitor35544 A compound or agent that combines with cyclooxygenases (EC and thereby prevents its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of icosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.DUKE
fungicide24127 A substance used to destroy fungal pests.DUKE
metal chelator38161 A ligand with two or more separate binding sites that can bind to a single metallic central atom, forming a chelate.DUKE
ornithine-decarboxylase inhibitor23924 A compound or agent that combines with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
protease inhibitor37670 A compound which inhibits or antagonizes the biosynthesis or actions of proteases (endopeptidases).DUKE
quinone-reductase inducerDUKE
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
  1. Ayana Wiener, Marina Shudler, Anat Levit, Masha Y. Niv. BitterDB: a database of bitter compounds. Nucleic Acids Res 2012, 40(Database issue):D413-419. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr755
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Rothwell JA, Pérez-Jiménez J, Neveu V, Medina-Ramon A, M'Hiri N, Garcia Lobato P, Manach C, Knox K, Eisner R, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2013) Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. Database, 10.1093/database/bat070.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.