Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2019-10-16 14:27:56 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:40:16 UTC
Primary IDFDB093715
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameGlucose
DescriptionGlucose, also known as D-glucose or dextrose, is a member of the class of compounds known as hexoses. Hexoses are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moiety. Glucose contains an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In aqueous solution, both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is predominant. Glucose is a neutral, hydrophilic molecule that readily dissolves in water. It exists as a white crystalline powder. Glucose is the primary source of energy for almost all living organisms. As such, it is the most abundant monosaccharide and the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. When not circulating freely in blood (in animals) or resin (in plants), glucose is stored as a polymer. In plants it is mainly stored as starch and amylopectin and in animals as glycogen. Glucose is produced by plants through the photosynthesis using sunlight, water and carbon dioxide where it is used as an energy and a carbon source Glucose is particularly abundant in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. Foods that are particularly rich in glucose are honey, agave, molasses, apples (2g/100g), grapes (8g/100g), oranges (8.5g/100g), jackfruit, dried apricots, dates (32 g/100g), bananas (5.8 g/100g), grape juice, sweet corn, Glucose is about 75% as sweet as sucrose and about 50% as sweet as fructose. Sweetness is detected through the binding of sugars to the T1R3 and T1R2 proteins, to form a G-protein coupled receptor that is the sweetness receptor in mammals. Glucose was first isolated from raisins in 1747 by the German chemist Andreas Marggraf. It was discovered in grapes by Johann Tobias Lowitz in 1792 and recognized as different from cane sugar (sucrose). Industrially, glucose is mainly used for the production of fructose and in the production of glucose-containing foods. In foods, it is used as a sweetener, humectant, to increase the volume and to create a softer mouthfeel. Various sources of glucose, such as grape juice (for wine) or malt (for beer), are used for fermentation to ethanol during the production of alcoholic beverages. Glucose is found in many plants as glucosides. A glucoside is a glycoside that is derived from glucose. Glucosides are common in plants, but rare in animals. Glucose is produced when a glucoside is hydrolyzed by purely chemical means or decomposed by fermentation or enzymes. Glucose can be obtained by the hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, and glycogen. Glucose is a building block of the disaccharides lactose and sucrose (cane or beet sugar), of oligosaccharides such as raffinose and of polysaccharides such as starch and amylopectin, glycogen or cellulose. For most animals, while glucose is normally obtained from the diet, it can also be generated via gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In humans the main gluconeogenic precursors are lactate, glycerol (which is a part of the triacylglycerol molecule), alanine and glutamine.
CAS NumberNot Available
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
D-GLCChEBI
D-GLCPChEBI
DextroseChEBI
GLC-OHChEBI
GlucoseChEBI
Grape sugarChEBI
WURCS=2.0/1,1,0/[a2122h-1x_1-5]/1/ChEBI
Purified glucoseKegg
D-GlucopyranoseKegg
Roferose STHMDB
(+)-GlucoseHMDB
Anhydrous dextroseHMDB, MeSH
CereloseHMDB
Cerelose 2001HMDB
Clearsweet 95HMDB
Clintose LHMDB
Corn sugarHMDB
CPC HydrateHMDB
D(+)-GlucoseHMDB
DextropurHMDB
DextrosolHMDB
GlucodinHMDB
GlucolinHMDB
GoldsugarHMDB
MeritoseHMDB
Staleydex 111HMDB
Staleydex 95mHMDB
Tabfine 097(HS)HMDB
VadexHMDB
D GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (DL)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (L)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (beta-D)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose monohydrateMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (alpha-D)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
L GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
L-GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
Dextrose, anhydrousMeSH, HMDB
Monohydrate, glucoseMeSH, HMDB
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
IUPAC name(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
Isomeric SMILES[H]C1(O)O[C@]([H])(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])O
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Foods
  • Sugars
  • Fruits and vegetables:

    Beverages:

    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    PropertyValueReference
    Physical stateNot Available
    Physical DescriptionNot Available
    Mass CompositionNot Available
    Melting PointNot Available
    Boiling PointNot Available
    Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
    Experimental logPNot Available
    Experimental pKaNot Available
    Isoelectric pointNot Available
    ChargeNot Available
    Optical RotationNot Available
    Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
    DensityNot Available
    Refractive IndexNot Available
    Spectra
    Spectra
    EI-MS/GC-MS
    TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS; 1 MEOX, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS; 1 MEOX, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 4 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7Spectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 1 MEOX; 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267Spectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 1 MEOX; 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7Spectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267Spectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cSpectrum
    GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faSpectrum
    Predicted GC-MSGlucose, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bSpectrum
    Predicted GC-MSGlucose, 5 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bSpectrum
    MS/MS
    TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9300000000-839f41cf94a071fcdb37Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-807f75d14f3d0b66f5bdSpectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-b89668f86992a8363664Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-b70415588e768ddce5efSpectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-73dc84dd88d8ae69fe02Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabSpectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-9c25b149885d8a48aab5Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-76d92ea96364c24ecfb0Spectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabSpectrum
    MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aSpectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-6e953691e4c61d5123d9Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000j-9200000000-42768e14d42bd5ebe785Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-08ov-9000000000-ee9eba654c17ccffa05fSpectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9700000000-b92609de9f7db41f6d8fSpectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9100000000-31314220c313e7443171Spectrum
    Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-2a9c77b5036ec23fe0d4Spectrum
    NMR
    TypeDescriptionView
    1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
    1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
    2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
    ChemSpider IDNot Available
    ChEMBL IDNot Available
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    Pubchem Compound IDNot Available
    Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
    ChEBI IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    HMDB IDNot Available
    CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
    EAFUS IDNot Available
    Dr. Duke IDNot Available
    BIGG IDNot Available
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    HET IDNot Available
    Food Biomarker OntologyFOBI:030758
    VMH IDNot Available
    Flavornet IDNot Available
    GoodScent IDNot Available
    SuperScent IDNot Available
    Wikipedia IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    Duplicate IDSNot Available
    Old DFC IDSNot Available
    Associated Foods
    FoodContent Range AverageReference
    FoodReference
    Biological Effects and Interactions
    Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
    EnzymesNot Available
    PathwaysNot Available
    MetabolismNot Available
    BiosynthesisNot Available
    Organoleptic Properties
    FlavoursNot Available
    Files
    MSDSNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    General ReferenceNot Available
    Content Reference